Read the previous part. ← My grapes
Zilga grapes are ripening
Thirty years ago, we calmly bought grapes in the markets or in stores and did not think at all about trying to grow it in our gardens. And only as a legend, there was a rumor among gardeners about the monks of the Valaam Monastery, who almost a century and a half ago managed to grow on their island and grapes, and watermelons.
In our gardens, we sometimes only allowed ourselves girlish grapes for decorating garden houses or gazebos. But in the last decade, grapes have become a very fashionable culture among St. Petersburg gardeners and summer residents.
The first stage of the preparation of the bushes
I could not resist this "fashion" either. Several years ago, the first grape plants appeared in my garden, in a greenhouse. I know that some experienced gardeners are trying to grow this southerner and in the open field in wall culture, I also began to try this method, but still my main hope is greenhouse... I think I wasted my time and effort. At the end of the last season, I already had quite a significant harvest of this berry.
I removed ten kilograms of grapes from the Zilga vines - juicy, weighty bunches of blue berries - delicious, sweet - grew. The Isabella variety yielded seven kilograms of fragrant grapes. The still young plant of the Krasa Severa grape variety had a more modest result - four kilograms of berries, white with a pinkish tinge. Agree that for the conditions of the Leningrad region this is a good harvest.
Of course, I consider myself a novice winegrower, but I already have some experience. I believe that a lot when growing this southern crop depends on providing it not only with favorable growing conditions in the warm season, but also with reliable wintering. The climate of the North-West region, to which the Leningrad region belongs, is far from ideal for grapes.
Two bushes are connected together
After all, the grape bush begins to grow at + 10 ° C. For further growth, flowering and development of the whole plant, + 25 ... 30 ° C heat is required. With a cold snap, the growth of shoots slows down, the photosynthesis of leaves decreases, and the accumulation of sugars in berries decreases. At + 14 ° C, these processes stop altogether.
Therefore, I grow grapes in a film greenhouse. I remove the film for the winter, so it is very important to prepare the grapes for the winter and the frosty period of its life. Over the years, I have worked out the technology of covering the vine, which I strictly adhere to. I hope that my experience, which I will tell you about, accompanying it with photographs of the entire sheltering process, will be useful to those gardeners who are just taking their first steps.
I begin the preparation of grapes for wintering by pruning the vine, removing excess growth. Then each bush, and I have two of them in the greenhouse, grow towards each other, I tie it with twine for compactness. After they are neatly connected, I connect them and tie them together. I wrap the trunks of grapes in the root zone with spunbond, and cover them with a film on top and also tie them with twine.
Insulation is put on at the bottom of the bundle
Then, on the underside of the connected bushes, I put on a special insulation for pipes and again wrap it with twine. In this case, the insulation must also fix the ends of the spunbond and the film in the root zone of the grapes. And again I put on another insulation - this time on the upper side of the connected vines. I also fasten everything with twine.
I put the bundles of vines warmed in this way in a trench between the bushes. I press them tighter with metal strips, you can do this with wire. And then I cover the insulated bushes with earth, shovel it into the root zone - on spunbond and film. For reliability, I add a thick layer of dry leaves over the film.
After the onset of persistent cold and frost and after the snow falls, I remove the film from the greenhouses, but before that I put another layer of film on top of the foliage. In this case, the leaves will remain dry until spring. This completes the preparation of grapes for wintering.
Shelter by the ground
In the spring, I again cover the greenhouses with plastic and raise the bound vines. In winter, they were warm, dry, and most importantly, enough air to breathe. After the threat of severe frost has disappeared, I cut the ends of each branch and tie them to the posts and trellises. This method of covering the vines is also suitable for open ground.
Insulation for pipes is best put on a bunch of vines from both sides, while the cut of the top should be below the bush, not in contact with the ground, so that in spring water does not get into the insulation. If your insulation turns out to be equal in diameter to a bunch of vines, and you get by with one layer, all equal, its cut must be at the bottom of the bunch. At the same time, you need to additionally lay a film in the trench, which you will then wrap with insulation. This is necessary to protect it from spring melt water.
Leaves complete the whole process
I would like to say about one more observation. If you are growing grapes in a greenhouse, then it should have double doors on both sides so that you can easily ventilate the soil against acidification. To protect plants from animals getting there, I install a reliable mesh in the doors, it does not interfere with the ventilation.
The beds in the greenhouse should be higher than the aisle, it is advisable to water the grapes in the well - through neatly installed pipes so that moisture flows directly to the roots. This year, four-year-old bushes were harvested, which grew after cuttings in the open field. In the spring I will transplant them to a permanent place. By the way, I covered them in the same way. I think it is simple and reliable, I have been using it for five years now.
prize-winner of our competition "Summer Season - 2007"
Most of the territory of Russia and Ukraine belongs to the zone of risky viticulture. In winter, there are two types of danger that grape bushes are exposed to - freezing and damping. Freezing is damage to plants by frost. Each grape variety has a certain tolerance threshold for low temperatures, usually around minus 7 ° C. In colder winters, it becomes necessary to protect the vines from the weather with additional shelter.
But first you need to prepare the vine for wintering. For this, all the leaves are removed, and the autumn pruning of the fruiting bushes is carried out. The main task of pruning is to remove unnecessary fertile vines.
It is recommended to leave a replacement knot and fruit arrow on each sleeve. Old, damaged or diseased sleeves should be removed, leaving young shoots growing from the base of the bush. The ripe annual vine has a bright straw-yellow color, without disease scars. The presence of oidium on it can be determined by dark, ugly spots. When pruning plants for the winter, you need to try to remove, first of all, these diseased shoots, keeping only healthy vines for the next year. Firstly, the areas damaged by powdery mildew are the source of the spread of the disease, and, secondly, such shoots will winter poorly and, most likely, will freeze out in winter.
The first frosts destroy unripe vines, which must also be removed. Such shoots can be distinguished, first of all, by their color, which has a greenish tint. If you try to bend a ripe shoot, you can hear a characteristic crunch, which indicates that the vine is ready for wintering.
After pruning, they proceed to katarovka, which consists in removing the surface dew roots located on the underground part of the trunk. If they are not cut, then in cold winters with little snow they can freeze out, and the remaining lower part of the root system gets sick, the bush weakens or even dies. To do this, you need to excavate the soil at the base of the bush to a depth of about 15 cm. The pits formed after katarovka are covered with dry sand.
Before sheltering the grapes, it is necessary to irrigate to replenish the soil moisture reserves. In autumn, water-charging irrigation begins, as a rule, immediately after harvesting. This creates favorable conditions for the concentration of moisture in the soil by the time of the autumn differentiation of inflorescences.
There are many ways to hide grapes, but one of the best is to create an air cushion using wooden shields. In this case, dry plant material is laid under the vines - leaves or spruce branches. From above, the vines are covered with a wooden shield with sides, leaving a few centimeters of free space around the plants. From above, the entire structure is covered with any waterproof material: polyethylene, slate, roofing felt, tarpaulin, etc. From above, you can additionally throw a cover with a layer of soil or rags.
It is very important to prevent moisture from entering sheltered plants, since waterlogging provokes the development of diseases that weaken the plants and can cause their death.
Drying out of grapes often occurs in cases where shelter is started too early, or during winter thaws. In this case, young shoots appear, which die during subsequent frosts. To prevent this unfavorable phenomenon from the southern end of the shelter, it is worth leaving a ventilation gap, which must be closed in case of established frosts.
To increase the winter hardiness of plants during preparation, it is necessary to exclude overloading of bushes with shoots and crops, timely removing ripe bunches. Bushes loaded with crops have a reduced winter hardiness, since the shoots lack reserve nutrients, so they ripen worse and have a weak hardening depth. Such vines freeze out without shelter, and under the shelter they cut out.
When caring for a vineyard, agricultural techniques should be followed to ensure a more complete ripening of the vines. During the entire growing season, it is necessary to feed the grapes with potash and phosphorus fertilizers. With increased acidity of the soil, liming is carried out.
In order to speed up the process of ripening of shoots, it is recommended to use nitrogen fertilizers only in the first half of the growing season. In September, one of the drugs with cryoprotective (protection from cold) properties can be used, which will accelerate the ripening process of the shoots and reduce the freezing point of the liquid in the tissues, thus ensuring an increase in the winter hardiness of the grapes. To do this, you can treat the bushes with a solution of the stimulator "MARS-Universal" (at a concentration of 0.5%) or the drug "Vympel" (0.15%). The use of these stimulants during the growing season in combination with chemistry enhances the fungicidal effect, and when used together with phosphorus, potassium and trace elements, it increases the sugar content of berries and the resistance of bushes to fungal diseases.
As for most plants, for grapes, one of the most unfavorable factors is daily temperature fluctuations and prolonged thaws, which are replaced by a sharp cold snap. In the vines heated by the sun's rays, vital processes are activated, and the daytime heat is replaced by night frosts, which have a detrimental effect on awakened buds. Therefore, bushes often freeze out even in conditions of relatively moderate low temperatures, especially in the presence of warm sunny days during wintering.
Shelter time depends on local weather conditions in each specific area. But it is important to remember that the plant must survive the first frosts open. At low negative temperatures, the hardening of the vines occurs, which is an important factor that determines the stability of grape bushes in the winter.
The grape culture is purely southern. However, a passionate desire to get her harvest on their site led to the fact that the gardeners of the Primorsky Territory learned how to successfully grow grapes in the zone of risky gardening. For this, it is important to carry out proper care of the grapes in late summer and autumn in preparation for wintering and shelter.
At the same time, at the end of summer - beginning of autumn, green garter growing vineswhen the upper young roots of the grapes grow and develop intensively.
The main task of the gardener of the middle lane in determining the timing of pruning is to give the vine time to fully ripen. The first signal that this process is coming to an end is the yellowing and falling of the grape leaves. In central Russia, this occurs in the last week of October - the first decade of November.
In the event of an abnormally warm autumn and the preservation of dense foliage on the branches, pruning should be carried out with garden shears, then the bushes should be treated with a suitable defoliant, for example, a 5% solution of ferrous sulfate. This procedure not only promotes shedding of the remaining crown, but also is the prevention of fungal diseases of grapes.
Stable frosts down to -3–5 ° С in the middle lane are the second signal that pruning and further shelter of the plant is required.
Attention! It is important not only to exclude too early a procedure, but also to prevent late formation - when the branches become fragile under the influence of cold and can break during covering work.
For an inexperienced gardener, it is important to remember the principles of pruning grapes in the middle lane:
Attention! When pruning grapes, up to 90% of the annual growth is removed. This is normal, since a bush that is not subjected to radical processing is less fruitful.
The procedure depends on the grape variety:
The removal of old vines and the formation of the next fruit link are the main stages of grape pruning in the middle lane. The scheme is standard: the replacement knot is shortened to a maximum of buds, and the shoot is shortened to 10.
Upon completion of all work, the vines are removed from the trellises and laid on the ground. It can be covered with spruce branches or pieces of styrofoam.This is necessary in order to exclude as much as possible direct contact of the branches with the ground. When stable sub-zero temperatures are established below -5 ° C in the middle lane, you need to start the procedure for sheltering the grapes.
The unfavorable factors affecting the vine in winter were discussed in the last article, here we will analyze the preparation of the vine, the methods and timing of the beginning of the shelter, the mistakes that beginners make.
In the hiding culture of viticulture, preparation for winter shelter consists in pruning bushes, tying vines into fascines (if required), laying bushes on the ground and carrying out eradicating treatment for diseases.
A separate section is devoted to pruning, we will not talk about it here. Depending on the formation of the bushes, they are either simply pressed to the ground (cordon formations), or the vines, for convenience, are tied first in bunches (fascines), and then pressed to the ground. It is not so easy to lay adult grape bushes; hooks bent from thick wire or reinforcement are used to hold them in a given position.
Thick fascines can be held by arcs, which are at the same time a frame for covering with film or other materials.
It is a good idea to underlay the vines or fascines with wooden beams. This is especially true in the south, where there can be long thaws, and in areas where melt water accumulates.
Before covering the grapes for the winter, no matter how the shelter is organized, it makes sense to carry out a preventive eradication treatment against fungal diseases. Moreover, the processing is carried out so as to cover the ground under the bushes, so it is convenient to do it when the bushes are already laid. Many pathogenic fungi are capable of growing under cover, not to mention relatively harmless mold. A particular danger is spotted necrosis, which affects stems and sleeves in damp and warm conditions. Previously, drugs such as DNOC and Nitrafen were used for eradicating treatment, but now they are prohibited for use in private household plots. A good alternative is a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate; in extreme cases, you can use 4% copper sulfate. In recent years, I have used the fungicides Fundazol or Topsin M for pre-winter treatment, these preparations well prevent the appearance of mold, rot, and powdery mildew under cover.
After spraying and drying the solution, you can proceed to the shelter.
Covering the vine for the winter, we pursue several goals - to protect it from icing, from the wind, from severe frosts, from significant temperature fluctuations. You can cover the vines from wind and frost without removing the bushes from the trellises, it is enough to arrange some kind of fences or wrap the bush with foil, but this method is completely useless from frost. The vine cannot be warmed in the same way as we warm our body with warm clothes, no matter how much we wrap the grapes on the trellis, and without a source of heat it will freeze. We put on warm clothes to keep the heat radiated from our own body, but grapes do not emit any heat, therefore, no matter what you wrap it up, the temperature inside will be the same as that of the surrounding air. That is why we shelter grapes on the ground. In winter, the earth is not only a source of heat, but also a temperature stabilizer, a heat-inertial array, on frosty days it is warmer than the air, and on warm days it is colder, thus the grapes sheltered on the ground are protected from strong temperature fluctuations. Therefore, if we are talking about full-fledged protection, then there are no alternatives to shelter on the ground.
In industry, grapes are covered with an earthen rampart for the winter. The vines are laid on the ground, then the tractor rakes up a shaft of earth 30-40 cm high from above. In many cases, this is a good way, the grapes breathe underground, tolerates frost well, and there are no costs for covering materials. However, this method is laborious, if the operation is carried out manually, some of the vines may be damaged when opened. For amateur vineyards, the method is not very acceptable, since, firstly, it will not be possible to keep the aisles under sodding, and secondly, melt water can accumulate on the site, and this is unlikely to be useful for grape bushes buried in the ground. Therefore, further we will consider only options for a dry shelter.
The picture above showed bushes under arcs made of thick wire or reinforcement. The disadvantage of this method is that you need a lot of arcs. But it is convenient and practical, the shelter is carried out quickly. As a covering material, a thick polyethylene film (preferably black), non-woven covering materials (such as agrospan, agrotex, etc.), foamed polyethylene (underlay for a laminate, sold in rolls), various tarpaulins, banner fabric, etc. are used. In the south, there is more than enough two-layer polyethylene film with a thickness of 100-120 microns. In the middle lane, growers successfully use the same method, covering in arcs with a couple of layers of agrospan, then with a film. The edges of the film are pressed to the ground with any heavy objects or covered with earth. The undoubted plus of this type of shelter is the ability, if necessary, to arrange air vents and ventilate the vine, and this is very important in the southern regions. The finished shelter along the arcs looks like this:
Please note that the volume of air trapped under the frame is important for this type of shelter. The larger it is, the colder it is inside. A low, low-volume shelter under a regular film will be warmer than a double-volume frame covered with several layers of covering materials. This is physics.
I cannot fail to mention here my own idea of cordon formation with a long stem, in which the bush is laid on the ground so that the fruit vines do not stick up, but are arranged horizontally. I cover such bushes simply with a film without any arcs or other devices, the volume of air inside is minimal. It is enough just to pin the bushes to the ground, placing wooden slats under them.
For traditional cordon and fan formations, many growers practice sheltering bushes for the winter in boxes. For this, the grapes must initially be planted in a trench. Its walls are reinforced with slate, brick, plastic, etc., the depth is about 20-25 cm, plus about 10 cm the box rises above the ground. A total of about 30 cm in height is available for laying vines.
From above, the boxes are covered with a metal mesh or just wooden slats, then a covering material. Boxes buried in the ground are a good warm shelter; it is inapplicable only in areas where a large amount of melt water accumulates. An example of hiding grapes in trenches in the photo:
Reed mats are a good covering material, including for boxes. Of course, not everyone will be able to get reeds and weave mats, but for general development I show how it looks:
In the coldest regions, severe winters are usually accompanied by a lot of snow. Snow is an excellent heat insulator, each centimeter of it saves about one degree of heat. In such conditions, it makes sense to use polyethylene foam as a covering material, and additionally take measures for snow retention. This can be done with the help of branches of coniferous trees (spruce branches), laying a covering material from above. The photo shows a similar shelter for flowers, for grapes the essence will not change:
Now let's go through the most common mistakes in the winter shelter of grapes, which are made due to inexperience or due to a misunderstanding of some physical processes.
1. Unjustified increase in the volume of the shelter
This has already been said above. The earth is the only "heater" of the inner space, the more air you need to warm up, the more difficult it is to do it. It is necessary to strive to reduce the internal volume of the shelter.
This option is good for protection against return frost in spring, but not for wintering. The smaller the frame, the better.
2. Application of straw and leaves inside the shelter
I found these pictures on "pseudovinogradar" sites, there are a lot of them now. An excellent visual aid on how not to cover grapes for the winter.
Leaves rot in dampness, and your grapes will rot with them. Straw is the best bait for mice, which eat not only the eyes, but also the bark from the vines and boles. Never use leaves and straw inside the shelter!
3. Application of spruce branches inside the shelter of grapes
Lapinik will not rot and mice will not start in it, only there is no point in it in this case. Lapnik is not as dense as reed mats, therefore, as a heat insulator, it does not work, as snow retention in this case, too, it just lies inside and tries to warm up with the grapes) There is no harm, no benefit either.
As mentioned in the last article, it is recommended to start hiding grapes. when night temperatures become steadily negative. In any case, you need to make a decision according to the circumstances, in the south you can not wait for stable negative temperatures until December, this is not a reason to leave the vineyard open. Usually work is carried out in November, and if the weather is warm, then the ends of the shelter are left open until stable negative temperatures. Sometimes the need for airing arises during prolonged thaws in December or February, this is also done by opening the ends.
That's all, now you know how to properly cover the grapes for the winter and not ruin it with your own hands. Happy wintering!
The anniversary of Novocherkassk belongs to the table grape varieties of early ripening. From bud break to harvest, 110–120 days pass. In the south of Russia and Ukraine, the ripening period of berries usually falls on the first half of August. In more northern regions, grapes of this variety reach consumer ripeness in late August and early September. When overripe, the berries practically do not crumble. They are also not prone to cracking due to high humidity.
The bunches of the Novocherkassk Jubilee are preserved for a long time on the vine
The pulp of the ripe berries of the Novocherkassk Jubilee is fleshy, juicy, with a pleasant sweet taste. It contains 18% sugars and 6.5% titrated acids. The skin of the berries is thin, almost imperceptible when eaten. Tasting assessment of fruits - 8.5 points out of 10 possible. The berries can be used to make juice, stewed fruit and wine, but most growers grow this variety for fresh consumption and for sale in the markets.
The first harvest Anniversary of Novocherkassk brings already in the second year of cultivation. In full force, the bush begins to bear fruit three years after planting. Up to 20 kg of berries can be harvested from one adult plant, which can easily be stored and transported.
The Yubiley Novocherkassk variety easily tolerates frosts down to -23 ° C. Resistance to such common fungal diseases as mildew and powdery mildew is assessed by experts at 3.5 points on a five-point scale.