When to open grapes in spring and what to process after opening


Grapes are one of the most common cultivated plants on earth. Today, more than 20 thousand varieties are officially registered, of which more than 3 thousand are grown in the territory of the former USSR. Most of these varieties are not hardy enough and are not able to survive the winter without shelter. In the spring, it is important not to forget to open the overwintered vine in time.

When to open grapes after winter

Grapes are not as greenhouse plant as they seem at first glance. It is able to withstand short-term frosts down to -4 ° C. So the ice on the puddles is not a reason to postpone the cleaning of the winter shelter for the next weekend until a warmer time. It is necessary to open the grapes when daytime temperatures reach positive values, and night frosts do not reach -4 ° C. At the same time, the snow on the site should already completely melt.

Also pay attention to soil moisture. The soil should dry out. Therefore, many gardeners temporarily remove the shelter on warm sunny days to ventilate the vine. This preventive measure helps to reduce the likelihood of fungal diseases.

A common mistake our gardeners make is that they believe that the main danger for thermophilic grapes is freezing. Therefore, novice growers try to open the vine as late as possible. But the plant will not be stopped by the lack of light, and at a temperature of + 10 ° C, even covered shoots will surely start to grow. The problem will be revealed when you do open the grapes. Before you appear weak, pale, young stems devoid of chlorophyll. Such shoots are called leaded. If left unprotected in direct sunlight, they will be burned and most likely to die. If the seedling had such shoots, they would have to be removed. To prevent this from happening, you will have to build a temporary shelter that creates sufficient shade and remove it for an hour a day, thus allowing the plant to gradually get used to the sunlight. The light initiates the formation of chlorophyll, and the shoots will gradually turn green.

Chlorophyll-free grape shoots are often unviable

Video: when to open grapes in spring

Spring processing of grapes after opening

After the winter shelter is removed, it is necessary to treat the vine with fungicides in order to get rid of pathogenic fungi, which also wintered comfortably under the shelter. It is microscopic fungi that cause the most common diseases of mildew and oidium grapes. Today, on store shelves, you will find a huge assortment of specialized preparations, but copper sulfate, which has been proven for decades, remains the most popular prophylactic agent.

  • For spring treatment, you will need a 1% solution. To do this, dilute 100 g of vitriol in 10 liters of water (1 bucket).
  • Spraying vines is most conveniently done with a garden spray. Copper sulfate will not dissolve completely, therefore, before pouring, it must be filtered to avoid clogging of the nozzles.
  • Now we start processing the vine. The temperature should not be lower than + 5 ° С, no precipitation.
  • Treatment with a 1% solution must be carried out before the buds of the grapes begin to bloom, otherwise they will suffer from a chemical burn.

Video: processing grapes with copper sulfate in spring

Spring garter of grapes

Do not tie up vines right after you have removed your winter shelter. Let the plant recover a little. Just spread the shoots, spread them on a trellis, and let them ventilate like this for three days. Spring garter of grapes is also called dry, as woody, not green shoots are tied.

Until you tied up the grapes, you can check how it overwintered. To do this, cut a small piece of the shoot with a pruner. The cut should have a healthy light green color. Also inspect the buds, move the scales apart under them there should be live green rudiments.

The grapes are traditionally tied up on a trellis, which consists of two two-meter pillars dug in at a distance of three meters, between which a wire is stretched. The first wire is pulled at a height of 40 cm, the subsequent ones at the same distance from each other. Dry perennial sleeves need to be tied on the first tier with a fan. The rest of the shoots are fixed on the second wire at an angle of 45-60 degrees relative to the ground. It is very important that the shoots are not tied vertically. In this case, only the upper 2-3 buds will develop, and the rest will grow weakly or will not wake up at all. It is most convenient to tie up the shoots with any soft wire. Later, when the buds begin to grow, young green shoots are tied vertically to higher tiers.

In the spring, the sleeves are tied to the first tier, and the shoots to the second

Video: spring garter grapes

Features of the disclosure of grapes in the regions

Our country is located in four climatic zones, and therefore it is impossible to determine a single date for the disclosure of grapes. In the table below, you will find the optimal date for getting rid of the winter shelter for your region.

In our country, even real wild grapes grow. In the Far East, there is a relict Amur grape (Vitis amurensis). Although not an ancestor of cultivars, this species is often used for landscaping, even in the more rugged northern regions.

Table: the date of disclosure of grapes in the regions of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus

Depending on the climatic zone and the microclimate in your garden plot, the optimal date for spring opening of grapes varies from early April to mid-May. Snow melting in the garden is a prerequisite and the most obvious sign that it is time to clean up the winter shelter.

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How to shelter grapes for the winter

After you have processed the grapes before the shelter, you can start directly to work. It is imperative to cover hybrids, young seedlings and unstable varieties. Hiding methods for grapes depend on terrain, weather and the availability of certain material. Each gardener decides for himself how to carry out this procedure more reliably and better.

There are the following methods of sheltering grapes for the winter:

  • hilling
  • dry shelter
  • semi-shelter
  • full cover of bushes
  • shelter by the ground.

Let's analyze each method separately and in more detail. We will also describe how to properly insulate the grapes.

Hilling

Using this method, it is possible without unnecessary hassle and reliably to cover low young seedlings. If you live in Belarus, in the south of Russia or Ukraine, then even an adult plant can be covered with hilling, without removing the branches from the trunk.

The main advantage of this method is that it is neither laborious nor costly. You just need to fill with a hoe a hill of earth with a height of at least 10 cm and no more than 25 cm.

The disadvantage is that only the roots are hidden. Buds and branches remain unprotected in the event of a sudden cold snap. However, this rarely happens in warm climates.

Dry shelter

This is perhaps the best method for hiding vines. It consists in warming the bunches of the vine with heat-insulating and moisture-proof layers. Wood shavings, spruce litter, pine spruce branches, etc. are suitable as insulation. For waterproofing, you need to take an opaque film, that is, old pieces of linoleum, roofing material, rubber will come off.

Lay the prepared vines along the row and cover with a thick layer of insulation and cover with waterproofing material on top. Sprinkle the film around the edges with earth or press down with bricks. Do not forget to leave air vents, that is, open parts of the shelter. This will ventilate the shelter and prevent condensation from building up.

The advantages of such a shelter are reliable protection from low temperatures. You can also cover large areas of the vineyard in a similar way. The only drawback is that some financial investment is required.

Semi-shelter

You can cover grapes for the winter using the semi-shelter method. In this case, not only the roots are covered, but also the base of the bush, part of the trunk and part of the shoots. For shelter, materials such as agrofibre, dense fabric, leaves or straw are suitable. A leafy layer or straw is poured near the base of the plant, and the covering fabric must be tied with twine so that it is not blown away by the wind.

The semi-shelter is suitable for mixed grape varieties. Their tops are frost-resistant, while the base and roots are more sensitive to cold weather.


Full cover

This method involves removing the branches of the plant from the support, processing and fully covering the grapes completely. It is allowed to take any material for shelter.

Cover the bushes with an old, unnecessary blanket made of natural fabric and cover with plastic on top so that moisture cannot get inside. Keep in mind that the film should not cover the kidneys, otherwise they can rot.

Press the covered branches to the ground with iron arcs and sprinkle with sawdust, dry grass or fallen leaves. It is enough to cover frost-resistant varieties with cut cardboard boxes or slate. If your region has a little snowy winter with sharp temperature changes, then make the top layer about 30 cm high.If the winter is warm, 10 cm will be enough.

Complete shelter for the grapes gives 100% protection so that the plant will be well protected in winter. If the winter turned out to be warm, then make holes in such a design so that the buds do not bloom ahead of time.

Shelter by the ground

Quite a laborious way to cover grapes for the winter. Along the entire vine row, you need to dig a trench up to 20-30 cm deep. The width directly depends on the thickness of the bunch of vines tied together. Lay the vine in the dug trench and dig in the grapes, that is, cover it with earth.

Above the trench, form an earthen rampart 15-20 cm high. This will protect the plant from the cold.

This method of hiding is the oldest, but it has many disadvantages. In mild winters, due to excessive moisture, the kidneys can be severely damaged. When collecting soil, the roots are partially exposed, which is also not very good. Also, grapes can be damaged during digging.


How to properly cover grapes for the winter

A fully ripe vine is able to withstand a critical subzero temperature, but no more than -12-15 degrees of frost. Until the onset of stable negative temperatures, perennial fruiting vines are not covered. Light frosts harden the vine, stimulate biochemical processes aimed at increasing the immunity and winter hardiness of the plant.

The principles on which the correct insulation of the vine is based.

  1. Preparation of grapes before shelter for the winter (pruning, fungicide treatment).
  2. The choice of a method of insulation suitable for the climatic zone.
  3. Compliance with the deadlines (when pruning, watering, sheltering the vine).
  4. Providing ventilation during the procedure.

Mold and condensation is the main problem of any plant that hibernates under cover. It is important to protect the vine from rodents, which can always be near - where it is warmer and there is something to profit from.

A wintering vine in the Central Black Earth Region is doomed to perish without even a modest shelter. Belgorod winegrowers consider our zone to be risky for agriculture and horticulture, therefore, it is most often recommended to plant the earliest grape varieties with a growing season of no more than 120 days on backyards. Covering grapes for the winter is a prerequisite for obtaining a full annual harvest.

I have Viking (blue) and Transfiguration (pink-fruited) growing on my site - early dessert varieties. The vine was never left to winter without insulation. If there was premature frost already at the end of October, then they covered it with roofing material and sprinkled it with earth (a quick way to get rid of the hopelessness of the situation) - our plants are alive - healthy and delight not the first year with full-bodied bunches. In the best case, I pin the grapes with electrodes at a distance from the ground, fall asleep with pine needles (more laborious) or straw and cover them with boards (a structure in the form of a house). Twice they insulated with husk (husk) of cereals instead of straw - the vine got a little underwhelmed, but did not die, all the buds began to grow. I don't use oilcloth, but I have nothing against it. By the way, the mice in the straw have not yet started.

A prerequisite for proper wintering is ventilation. We have it in the form of a cut off plastic "five-liter", which can be located both correctly and upside down, the main thing is that it is not covered with snow.

How to prepare grapes for wintering

In anticipation of cold weather, the grapes are prepared for future wintering in September. Depending on the variety, the timing of fruit ripening and the climate in the region, preparation is carried out from mid-September to mid-October. After harvesting, the grapes begin to prepare for winter.

  1. Before carrying out the autumn moisture charging of the grapes, the plant is fed with a solution of trace elements. It is recommended to dilute 20 g of granular phosphorus fertilizer and 10-15 g of potash fertilizer in 10 liters of settled water. Nitrogen feeding during this period is excluded. It will be useful to add 10-15 drops of iodine and 5 g of boric acid (in powder) to the solution. The timely introduction of nutrients into the soil helps to preserve the buds of flowers and restore the plant's immunity to fungal diseases common in the vineyard.
  2. After fertilization, watering is carried out - without waterlogging. It is important to take into account the peculiarities of the soil: on sand - 20-25 liters, on loams and black soil - 10-15. They also take into account the proximity of the location of groundwater at the site.
  3. Before the start of frost (but always after the foliage has fallen off), they start pruning the vine: remove unripe, damaged and dead branches, leaving a third of spare buds. The optimal time for the procedure is the 3rd decade of September.
  4. Preventive treatment against pests and diseases is inevitable in anticipation of the winter hibernation of the vineyard.
    1. Copper sulfate is a proven disinfectant for tree shrubs and fruit trees. About 100 g of the product is dissolved in 10 liters of warm (40 ° C) water and sprayed on the vine, capturing the root space of the soil.
      a left solution with the addition of soda and iodine is a good method of fighting infection and fungal diseases of trees. You will need 40 g of salt and 20 g of baking soda to make a "talker". They are dissolved in warm water (8-10 liters) and 10 drops of iodine are added. The processing is repeated 2-3 times. From such common diseases of the vine as oidium and mildew, colloidal sulfur (5 g per 5 liters of water) or a solution of potassium permanganate (5 g per 10 liters) has proven itself. But in order to avoid an outbreak of these diseases in the coming season, experienced growers are advised to carry out more serious processing in the vineyard - spraying with Fundazol, Ridomil and Topaz (according to the instructions).
    2. To avoid the invasion of mice, it is recommended to decompose a special poison from rodents or to sprinkle the surface of the ground of the trunk circle with wood ash (this is an alternative to chemicals - falling on the paws and muzzle, ash causes irritation and scares off mice). Some gardeners lay out calcium carbide in shallow metal dishes right under the winter shelter of the vineyard.Gas formation, which occurs in this substance when air is absorbed in an enclosed space, scares off mice and prevents them from settling under insulation.
  5. Now the vine is carefully removed from the trellises (if necessary, shelter in a horizontal position), tied up so that the fragile shoots of this year are not injured, laid on an insulating material or simply pinned to the ground (observing a space of 20-30 cm) and set the frame or simply fall asleep earth and spruce branches.

Ways to hide grapes for the winter

There are several ways to cover the vine for the winter:

  1. Dry covering or frame (using film and other synthetic insulation).
  2. Hilling with earth and snow.
  3. Trench method.

Each method is acceptable in exceptional cases - in certain climatic conditions, for certain types and varieties of grapes.

Modern winter-hardy varieties hibernate well under light shelter, but even in temperate regions and in the south, many hybrids hibernate much better under shelter. For the vine, not only long frosts are terrible, but also unexpected warming in the middle of winter. In the warmest winter, the buds suffer on the shoots, which begin to come to life quite inopportunely. The main thing is compliance with the temperature regime and the absence of sudden changes, this is achieved by the presence of the simplest insulation in the vineyard.

The possibility of using various covering materials and natural insulation allows you to reduce labor costs and material costs in large vineyards, but at the same time preserve plants and hope for a future harvest.

The most common and safest method is to dry the vines. An excellent option for Siberia, the Urals, Transbaikalia, Bashkiria, the Volga region.

  1. For this, hydro and thermal insulating nonwoven and building materials are used: film (preferably opaque), fiberglass, spunbond, roofing material, foamed polyethylene and others. The vine is laid on prepared wooden shanks or slate pieces (rubber mats, etc.) and covered with thick paper, lutrasil (one of the options).
  2. Metal arches (trellises, racks) are installed on top at a distance of 20–40 cm from the plant, leaving an "air cushion", and they stretch the insulation, lay spruce branches over it (reed mats, straw, dry dead wood, sawdust) or construction insulation (geotextile, isovol) , professional sheet, roofing material, etc.
  3. Important! Leave gaps with soil and insulating holes (air vents) for condensation to evaporate.
  4. At the edges, the shelter is fixed with bricks or metal staples, hemp. This will prolong the life of the winter shelter of the grapes and keep it in case of sudden gusts of wind and other bad weather.

The insulation material mentioned above does not get wet, maintains a positive temperature inside the tent with grapes, is breathable and allows excess moisture to evaporate. The only exception to this method is that certain material investments are inevitable.

Often, old bags, blankets, outerwear, plastic containers and boxes are used to warm the grapes, depending on the size of the bush and its location on the site.

Covering grapes with snow and earth allows you to thoroughly protect the plant from frost and winds, but this option is suitable for frost-resistant varieties that grow in the southern regions of our country, in Central Russia, in Belarus (south, southeast), in the north-west of Ukraine, in Rostov, even in the Volga region. That is, with severe frosts and recurrent frosts, there is a possibility of partial freezing of shoots with insufficient insulation.

But many growers have proven through experience and many years of experience that a snow cover of 40–60 cm in height is an ideal method of sheltering a vine. If the branches were previously covered with thick spruce branches or fallen trees and a little covered with earth, there should be no problems with wintering.

The trenching method provides for the preparation of grooves with a depth of about 50–70 cm. The grape shoots fastened together are laid on the ground, covered with a special flooring made of slate or wood (this will avoid rotting of the vine). From above, the grapes are carefully covered with burlap or oilcloth and sprinkled with earth. In winter, such a frame is covered with snow and keeps warm well. This variant of "burial" of grapes until spring is well suited for the Krasnodar Territory, Stavropol Territory, Rostov Region, often in this way they insulate in the Central Black Earth Region, and in the Moscow Region, on the Belarusian land and in Bashkiria.

Photo gallery: trench method for warming grapes

Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages, the choice remains with the gardener.

Grapes - it is enough to cover the first year with a 5-liter plastic bottle and sprinkle with earth. If in doubt, cover with branches and sawdust from above. A ventilation cut must be left in the bottle.

At what temperature should you cover grapes for the winter

Depending on the territorial location of the region and its climatic characteristics, the timing of sheltering the vine for the winter will be different. In the southern regions, in Ukraine, in the Rostov region and the Crimea, they often begin to warm grapes, poorly tolerating frost and weathering, at the end of November or in December.

In Central Russia, the Volga region, in Belarus, these dates come a little earlier - at the beginning of November.

In the Moscow region and the Leningrad, Bryansk region, the vine is freed from foliage and is ready for warming in mid - late October.

In the northern regions of our country, in Transbaikalia, in the Urals, they do not wait for the first frosts and snowfalls and begin to shelter dessert grape varieties from mid-October.

It is not the best option to cover the grapes when the outside temperature drops to the level indicated in the ampelography of the variety. The optimum average daily temperature for preparing the wintering of grapes is -5 -8 ° C, night frosts can reach -10 ° C, during the day an acceptable temperature regime for covering grape varieties is 0 -5 ° C.

By this time, the vine is freed from foliage, and moisture and nutrients have time to go deep into the roots, the grapes go into winter with dry shoots and dormant buds. It is dangerous to be ahead of events and to cover the plant ahead of time - when it warms, the vine grows rotten, and the buds may wake up and sap flow will begin - this will lead to the death of part of the shoots and even the whole plant. But sitting back until the bitter frost is not the most correct option. If you are late with shelter, the grape shoots will become too dry and brittle, in this state perennial vines and eyes are easily damaged, the plant's chances of surviving the winter are reduced. The organ of grapes most sensitive to cold is the root; it is insulated first of all, carefully covering the space around the trunk.

Some gardeners practice partial covering of the vine. At the first cold snap, the prepared vine is laid and pinned, covering with spruce branches and straw. And when the first night frosts appear or when predicting snowfalls, the grapes are sprinkled with earth or hidden under a frame shelter. For some southern regions, where the temperature does not drop below -15 degrees, this option of partial shelter is quite suitable for a full-fledged safe wintering.

Video: when to cover grapes for the winter

How to cover grapes on a gazebo

For gazebo cultivation, gardeners usually select non-sheltered dessert grape hybrids or frost-resistant technical and universal varieties. The vine of such grapes winters well in an upright position. Buds and eyes are preserved until spring if the plant is planted in an area sheltered from northern winds near the wall of any building. Thus, the grapes are protected from weathering and return frost.

But in the case when table grapes, requiring warming for the winter, grows on a gazebo, its shoots are formed and sent to the structure in such a way that when a cold snap sets in, it is possible to carefully remove them and bend them to the ground.... Further, the vine is covered with non-woven material (lutrasil, spunbond), fixing it on the shoots in an upright position or covered with wooden shields, bending it to the walls of the gazebo.

Video: how to cover a vine on a gazebo


Execution of works

In regions with a temperate climate, both full ground cover and semi-cover with a film can be used, since both methods give approximately the same effect. Wherein it is recommended to adhere to the following algorithm of actions:

  1. When covering with earth, it is enough just to dig a small depression in the immediate vicinity of the plants and lay a bush in it, sprinkling it with earth. The thickness of the soil layer can vary from 15 to 50 cm, depending on the age of the shrub and the size of its root system. Fence should be done in such a way as to avoid exposing the vineyard roots, otherwise it will become even more vulnerable. It is allowed to alternate layers of shelter, when, in addition to soil, dry foliage and straw are used, which is especially important for areas with more severe and long winters. To facilitate the opening procedure, these areas are marked with wooden or metal pegs.
  2. In warmer latitudes, a vine cover can be used. To do this, an auxiliary arc of a metal rod or thick wire is installed over the bush, and a thick plastic bag is put on top of it. The lower part of the plant is covered with a thick soil layer with a small depression to ensure air circulation and prevent the development of fungus. With the onset of the first frosts, the recess is completely covered with earth to exclude the access of cold air.

If you wish, you can experiment with materials using a denser glassy fabric, greenhouse film, slate (fully covered with earth) and other versatile construction waste.


Watch the video: Grape farming full process video of bud formation to harvesting of grape


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